However, the observed irregularities of the universe, which include vast galactic formations, (9) gigantic voids and sheets of galaxies, (10) and the "Great Wall", (11,12) that is estimated to stretch across one half billion light years of space, tend to deny that smoothness.
The smoothness of the distribution of the matter of the universe is said to be verified by the smoothness of microwave background radiation (MBR) that is received from all directions of space.
Key words: singularity, smooth universe, flat universe, average density, age, black body radiation, neutrinos, chronology, light elements, red shift, curved space, quasars, inflation, decelerating expansion. However, as will be discussed further on, observational evidence has all but ruled out the possibility of the collapsing Big Bang universe case, thus adding to the incredibility of zero net energy; and certainly it would seem that the positive energy of the potential, kinetic and the enormous mass equivalent energy of the of the universe must be far greater than the negative energy of its gravity.
(Note: Numbers in brackets refer to references at the end of this document.) 1. For any Big Bang universe case the postulated zero net energy idea appears to be unrealistic.
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The Big Bang Essay
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Scientists who seriously question the Big Bang are generally considered disruptive, ridiculed and derogatorily referred to as big bang bashers.
Education establishments involved in the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology are dominated by those who have accepted Big Bang as the theory to be pursued.
Discrete and separate 'bodies' are an illusion of the senses. However, that doesn't provide an adequate explanation for the source of the energy requirement described above.
Cosmic cheers, Geoff Haselhurst A critical look at the very old big bang problems (of the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness) and the failed solutions of inflation theory; newer Big Bang problems relating to missing mass (as required for a flat inflationary universe), the age of the universe, radiation from the "decoupling" ("smearing" of black body spectrum), a contrived Big Bang chronology, the abundance of light elements, and red shift anomalies; and problems, newer yet, regarding inconsistencies of red shift interpretation, curved space, inflation theory, the decelerating expansion of a Big Bang universe, and some additional logical inconsistencies of Big Bang theory are presented. It should be noted that this zero net energy explanation couldn't reasonably be postulated for other than a recollapsing universe.