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Homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety for students.Cheung & Leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches.Galloway, Conner & Pope (2013) surveyed 4,317 high school students from ten high-performing schools, and found that students reported spending more than 3 hours on homework daily.
Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with 2.2% of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, and anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both problems with homework as well as forgetting to hand in homework.
A 2007 study of American students by Met Life found that 89% of students felt stressed from homework, with 34% reporting that they "often" or "very often" felt stressed from homework.
Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than two hours in high school score worse.
Proponents claim that assigning homework to young children helps them learn good study habits.
With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts.
In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade.In a sample taken of students between the ages of 6 and 9 years, it was shown that students spend more than 2 hours a week on homework, as opposed to 44 minutes in 1981.Historically, homework was frowned upon in American culture.In a single study, parents and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students' study skills and personal responsibility skills.Leone & Richards (1989) found that students generally had negative emotions when completing homework and reduced engagement compared to other activities.Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education.Homework is designed to reinforce what students have already learned.Homework not only helps students at school, but also strengthens their work ethic, which is helpful after scho Studies have proven that homework does improve the stability of students in school.According to Cooper’s much-cited review of homework studies, there have been 20 studies since 1962 that compared the achievement of students who received homework and achievement of students who did not.Stress was especially evident among high school students.Students that reported stress from homework were more likely to be deprived of sleep.