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In China, the gains follow two decades of strong policy-driven growth in science and higher education, says Tijssen.Wagner also expects that China might soon overtake the United States to become the largest producer of publications — it is now only about 35,000 papers short. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS.
One reason could be that both countries started from a low base — near the bottom of the list of top 40 countries in overall numbers of papers, says Robert Tijssen, head of science and innovation studies at Leiden University in the Netherlands.
The figures might also reflect changes in how the database is curated, which has added more local or national journals to the mix.
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies (ISSN: 2519-0318 & e ISSN: 2518-8488) is a bi-annual open access research journal published by CSRC Publishing, Center for Sustainability Research and Consultancy Pakistan.
The journal is independently managed by the advisory board and associate fellows of CSRC comprising of distinguished faculty at higher education institutions.
Globally, research output rose by around 5% in 2018, to an estimated 1,620,731 papers listed in a vast science-citation database Web of Science, the highest ever (see ‘Research output rose again in 2018’).
This diversification of players in science is a phenomenal success, says Caroline Wagner, a science and technology policy analyst at Ohio State University, and a former adviser to the US government.“In 1980, only 5 countries did 90% of all science — the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Japan,” she says.
Pakistan and Egypt topped the list in percentage terms, with rises of 21% and 15.9%, respectively.
China’s publications rose by about 15%, and India, Brazil, Mexico and Iran all saw their output grow by more than 8% compared with 2017 (see ‘Countries with biggest rises in research output’).
In this paper we address some of the most important exchange rate-related issues in emerging economies.
In particular, we deal with: (a) the merits of alternative exchange rate regimes: (b) the extent to which purchasing power parity holds in the long run in these countries; and (c) models to assess real exchange rate overvaluation.