The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and Sport Accord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts (checkers), Go and xiangqi, Sport is usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner.Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first.
Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser.
A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion.
A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sport in Greece influenced one another considerably.
Sport became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia.
According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, 'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels." There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sport involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or Sport Accord.
Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity.For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those competed just for fun.In order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other.Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century.Industrialisation has brought increased leisure time, letting people attend and follow spectator sports and participate in athletic activities.It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.Records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news.Gymnastics appears to have been popular in China's ancient past.Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt.