Pediatrics as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century; German physician Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of American pediatrics because of his many contributions to the field.
He received his medical training in Germany and later practiced in New York City.
A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician.
The word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words: understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment: Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent ("In general, boys should not be treated in the same way as men").
Phase I and Phase II enzymes have different rates of maturation and development, depending on their specific mechanism of action (ie.
oxidation, hydrolysis, acetylation, methylation, etc.). Enzyme capacity, clearance, and half-life are all factors that contribute to metabolism differences between children and adults.
Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own, especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Avicenna, and Averroes.
The Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi (865–925) published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity.
Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than they often are to adult physicians.
A common adage is that children are not simply "little adults".