A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988).Tags: Creative Writing Game100 College Essay PromptsTd Business PlanCompare Exposure And Spring Offensive EssayConnect Assignment AnswersHow Do You Write A BookCreative Letter Writing
For example, There is no relationship between the number of hours nontraditional-aged college women use the student union and their persistence at the college after their freshman year.
Or, There is no difference between the mean grade point averages achieved by students in the upper and lower quartiles of the distribution of the Self-regulated Inventory.
Statements of this sort are usually taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature.
In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point.
In studies aiming at grounded theory, for example, theory and theoretical tenets emerge from findings.
Much qualitative inquiry, however, also aims to test or verify theory, hence in these cases the theoretical framework, as in quantitative efforts, should be identified and discussed early on.Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study.This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention.In quantitative studies, one uses theory deductively and places it toward the beginning of the plan for a study. One thus begins the study advancing a theory, collects data to test it, and reflects on whether the theory was confirmed or disconfirmed by the results in the study.The theory becomes a framework for the entire study, an organizing model for the research questions or hypotheses for the data collection procedure (Creswell, 1994, pp. In qualitative inquiry, the use of theory and of a line of inquiry depends on the nature of the investigation.The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem.It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer is knowledgeable about the area (Wiersma, 1995, p. Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too extensive to permit easy summary.The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study (Locke, Spirduso, & Silverman, 1987, p. If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader.Clearly identify and define the central concepts or ideas of the study.When a writer states hypotheses, the reader is entitled to have an exposition of the theory that led to them (and of the assumptions underlying the theory).Just as conclusions must be grounded in the data, hypotheses must be grounded in the theoretical framework.