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Prior to this, successive numbered treaties were made in the later 1800s with First Nations in all the other provinces except British Columbia.A good example of First Nations' GIS in action is the employment of significant maps to establish aboriginal title to respective traditional territories.
As a Lakota, I can only relate a perspective of the Plains Indian worldview that parallels the concepts and philosophies of many other indigenous cultures.
One must understand the age of indigenous cultures on this continent and how concepts of original geographic information systems have evolved through close observation of the natural world.
Within the observation and learning styles of Native people, these experiences have evolved beyond knowledge and are now within the realm of wisdom.
Today this is validated by observations from space missions and the revelations to promote the earth sciences.
This makes me believe that the ancestral decision making processes are applicable for every contemporaneous application.
As the picture above depicts leaders in a decision making process, these same issues are being addressed today and solutions are proposed by the utilization of new tools and appropriate digital data sources.With a limited budget and a vision to enforce a treaty and assert a just land claim to the Crown, the Six Nations researched and presented to the courts historical land records by utilizing state-of-the-art GIS software.Today and beyond meeting their community GIS needs, the Six Nations’ Geo-Systems has developed an innovative partnership with the Niagra College of Ontario to provide an applicable curriculum and degree program for First Nations students.This philosophy is ideally the foundation for the critical thinking process in developing their spatial information solutions.These concepts have transcended from concepts of origins and the placement within the universe and a respective geographical region.The picture also records the evolution of Plains Indian culture that has embraced the rifle and horse for the betterment of their nation.It is important to realize the trait of aboriginal cultures to adapt and "Indianize" new and important resources.I have been fortunate and honored to have shaken hands with many practitioners of culture and technology from across the lower 48 states, Alaska, and Canada.My insights and experiences are derived from direct relationships with tribal and other GIS visionaries who are seeking to promote, implement, and apply the spatial information technology within Indian country.Another aspect to this story is the historical record that Native people have been colonized and paternalized by federal government policies.The history of this modern era has left many nations with a fixed land base and imposed governmental processes.