the Ehtesab Cell (EC), was established by the November 1996 Ehtesab Ordinance promulgated by the caretaker government of Prime Minister Malik Meraj Khalid, and then operated under the elected government of Nawaz Sharif, who passed the Ehtesab Act, 1997.In November 1999, it was transformed by the National Accountability Ordinance into the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), after General Pervez Musharraf staged a military coup and proclaimed that his government would subject politicians and administrators to “ruthless” accountability (Musharraf 200).Indeed, the paper suggests that the same institutions that have aggressively convicted corrupt officials under some governments have entered into plea discussions under others, a fact which highlights that government transitions have serious effects on the conduct of supposedly independent anti-corruption mechanisms.
Essays On Corruption In Pakistan Networking Thesis Paper
The politicization of state institutions takes place not only in recent states with hybrid regimes or defective democracies but also in old democracies with established rule-of-law traditions (Peters, Falk, and Pierre 2004).
The paper focuses on some of Pakistan’s key institutions of governance—anti-corruption agencies—in order to find out whether a change of government brings about certain policy changes within anti-corruption agencies in favor of governmental political parties.
Indeed, some authors have exposed the political use of anti-corruption agencies such as the NAB (Chêne 2008, Khan, Kakakhel, and Dubnick 2004), but these studies only highlight specific instances.
The second section turns to the legal provisions underpinning accountability institutions and argues that the anti-corruption legal system tends to favor powerful individuals over weaker ones.
The third section analyzes the actual performance of anti-corruption agencies to show that political considerations have largely influenced their conduct.