During the ending centuries of the Roman Empire, Christianity became more powerful and influential, especially after become lawful under the Roman Emperor Constantine (Emperor AD 324 - 337).
A consequence of the ascendancy of Christianity was that less authority was given to the pagan, "classical teachings" of the Greeks. However, the Library of Alexandria, one of the largest libraries in Egypt (and the Western world) was destroyed by fire in 389 AD. Also lost and burned was the Museum of Alexandria, a real university, in 415 when riots incited by Christians caused its destruction.
In the Medieval Age, the Muslims led the world in their pursuit of knowledge.
Much of this knowledge was discovered by Muslim scientists while other knowledge was derived from other cultures including the Greeks, Persians, Indian, and Chinese.
It was only through the transfer of Greek knowledge (including Aristotle's philosophy, Ptolemy's geography, Historians have discovered that there were two major periods of intense scholarly work in the Muslim world during the Medieval Age.
The first period was in the 9th and 10th centuries in Baghdad and the second period was the 12th and 13th century in Europe (primarily Spain).
As noted in the tutorial, "because Muslims believe that Allah is all-knowing, they also believe that the human world's quest for knowledge leads to further knowing of Allah.
Muslims must thus pursue knowledge not only of God's laws, but of the natural world as well, extending the frontiers of human knowledge.
Last, you should read this essay that presents "certain aspects of the Islamic sciences as seen from the Islamic point of view." Science and Civilization in Islam, a different situation existed in Spain.
And, this difference can be traced directly to Muslim influences.