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Many microbial detoxification processes involve the efflux or exclusion of metal ions from the cell, which in some cases can result in high local concentrations of metals at the cell surface, where they can react with biogenic ligands and precipitate. Although microorganisms cannot destroy metals, they can alter their chemical properties via a surprising array of mechanisms.
In this regard, recent advances in microbes-base heavy metal have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to conventional techniques.
Heavy metals are nonbiodegradable and could be toxic to microbes.
Microbial technologies are active and growing .
Long trajectory exists on how microbes and metals interact in both natural and man-made environments.
Bioremediation of Polluted Waters Using Microorganisms, Advances in Bioremediation of Wastewater and Polluted Soil, Naofumi Shiomi, Intech Open, DOI: 10.5772/60770.
The discharge of untreated tannery wastewater containing biotoxic substances of heavy metals in the ecosystem is one of the most important environmental and health challenges in our society.The direct use of microorganisms with distinctive features of catabolic potential and/or their products such as enzymes and bio surfactant is a novel approach to enhance and boost their remediation efficacy [15, 16].Different alternatives have also been anticipated to widen the applications of microbiological techniques towards the remediation of heavy metals.Water pollution is an issue of great concern worldwide, and it can be broadly divided into three main categories, that is, contamination by organic compounds, inorganic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), and microorganisms. In recent years, the number of research studies concerning the use of efficient processes to clean up and minimize the pollution of water bodies has been increasing. The types of microorganisms that are used in bioremediation processes due to their natural capacity to biosorb toxic heavy metal ions are discussed in detail. This chapter summarizes existing knowledge on various aspects of the fundamentals and applications of bioremediation and critically reviews the obstacles to its commercial success and future perspectives. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Available from: We are Intech Open, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals.Bioremediation is employed in order to transform toxic heavy metals into a less harmful state using microbes [10–12] or its enzymes to clean-up polluted environment .The technique is environmentally friendly and cost-effective in the revitalization of the environment [3, 9, 14]. Among these are production of toxic metabolites by microbes and nonbiodegradability of heavy metals.